KUNNE YA GIRMI KAKA: ASALIN YADDA TURAWA SUKA BINCIKO AFRIKA TA YAMMA…..

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Daga SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO.

Tun da jimawa, Labarai masu ƙayatarwa suka cika kasashen Yammacin Turai dangane da yankin Afirka ta yamma. Tatsuniyoyi sun shahara akan haka. Labarin Attajiri Mansa Musa mai kyautar gwala-gwalai ya zamo abin jimami a Ingila, haka kuma labarin shaharar Kogin Kwara ba zai misaltu ba.

A wancan lokacin dai, turawa na ɗaukar birnin Tambuktu a matsayin birnin Gwal, domin haka ma suke yiwa garin laƙabi da suna ‘birnin gwal’, suna kuma da ƙarancin sani game da kogin Kwara.

A kan hakane aka kafa wata kungiya a birnin landan mai suna ‘Association for promoting the discovery of the interior parts of africa’ a shekarar 1788, wadda a taƙaice ake ambatar ta da ‘African association’. Kungiyar, wadda sir joseph Banks ke jagoranta, ta ƙunshi manyan mutane, masana da attajirai, kuma tana da burin binciko zance mafi gaskiya dangane da Birnin Tambuktu, da kuma kogin Kwara.

Wannan yunkuri shine asalin fara laluben turawa a kasashen Afirka ta yamma. Akan haka, an rinƙa sauraron matafiya da sauran masu binciken tarihin duniya dangane da abinda suka sani game da Tambuktu da kuma kogin kwara.

Ga misalin abubuwan da aka samo;
I. Bayani yazo daga James Bruce dan Kasar scotland, wanda a shekarar 1769AD ya isa kasar Habasha cewa “daular Tambuktu karkashin mulkin Muhammadu Askia I, tayi matukar karfi a wajajen ƙarni na 13 zuwa na 15, kuma itace ta mamaye mafi yawan ƙasashen yammacin Africa, tun daga yankin Gambiya da senegal, har zuwa sokoto dake ƙasar Hausa. A gabashi kuma sai da ta dangane da kogin kwara. Garin Timbuktu kuwa, yana dauke da baƙi masu yawa, kuma gari ne mai cike da arzikin gwal.

ii. An samu labari daga wani masani mai suna Al Hassan Bin muhammad al-Wazziniz zayyati wanda akewa Laƙabi da Leo Africanus (ma’ana zakin Afrika) wanda kuma akace kakannin sa na cikin gungun musulman da sukayi gudun hijira izuwa sassan duniya daga birnin Andaluz a shekarar 1492 sa’ar da Sarki Ferdinand da Sarauniya Isabella suka cinye garin da yaki, ga abinda ya faɗa bayan ya samu damar ziyartar Timbuktu “ana kawo hatsi, shanu, madara da man shanu mai tarin yawa izuwa garin Timbuktu duk kuwa da kasancewar garin cikin sahara inda babu ƙoramu da lambuna.
Babban abinda mutanen garin ke musayar kasuwanci dashi shine gishiri”. Ya ƙara da cewa ”Sarkin Timbuktu attajiri ne na gaske, wanda ya mallaki sulalla na zinare marasa adadi. A koda yaushe kuma idan yana tafiya zaka samu kimanin dawakai 3000 suna rufa masa baya. Sannan yana da tarin likitoci, alƙalai, malamai masu wa’azi da sauran masana zazzaune a fadar sa”. Daga wajen Leo Africanus ne kuma turawan ingila suka fahimci cewa Gishiri yana da matuƙar daraja a Timbuktu, saboda ya ayyana cewa zuwa akeyi dashi daga wani gari mai suna Tangaza, wanda yake da nisan Mil ɗari biyar daga Timbuktun. Har ma yake cewa “na taɓa kasancewa a Timbuktu a lokacin da farashin mangalar gishiri yake dai-dai da farashin sisin gwal tamanin”.

iii. Wani bayanin ma ya samu daga hannun wani mai suna Asseed El hage Abd Salam Shabeeniy, wanda akewa laƙabi da Shebani, a wajajen shekara ta 1788. Shebani ya rayu a timbuktu tsawon shekara uku, inda har ya leƙa kasar hausa, ga kuma abinda ya naƙalto ” Adadin mutanen garin timbuktu zai cimma dubu 40, banda bayi da kuma baƙi mazauna garin. Duk al’ummar garin baƙaƙen fata ne, sannan kuma kusan duk baƙon da zaije garin sai ya auri ‘yar garin saboda kyawun matayen su. Kallo daya tak zai sa ka faɗa so da ƙaunar su”
Ƙari akan haka shine labarin Attajirin Sarkin Timbuktu Mansa Musa wanda ya baza duniya. Ance yayi zamani a wajajen ƙarni na 12, shine kuma ya taɓa ziyartar Saudiyya da ɗumbin bayi gami da ɗumbin gwala-gwalai.
Sai dai duk labaran nan, babu abinda akeji game da Kogin Kwara, kuma har izuwa lokacin kafuwar kungiyar, ba a samu wani bature farar fata ba wanda yayi ikirarin yaga Kogin kwara da idanuwansa.

A shekarar 1790, wani tsohon soja mai suna Daniel Houghton ya tunkari wannan kungiya ta ‘African Association’, da nufin amsar kwantiragen zuwa Africa ta yamma da ƙafa don gani da ido. Nan take kuwa kungiyar ta amince masa, ta kuma ɗora masa nauyin ziyartar Tafkin Barra kunda (wani gari dake ƙasar Gambiya) da kuma ƙasar Hausa tare da binciko ainihin inda garin Timbuktu yake, sannan ya ƙarƙare tafiyar a gaɓar kogin Kwara. Da yin haka, sai ya shiga kokarin koyon harshen Larabci tare da wani yare na ƙasar senegal mai suna ‘Mandingo’ ta yadda zai samu damar mu’amala da mutane. Sannan ya sanya ranar fara tafiya.
A watan Oktoba na shekarar 1790, Hougton ya shigo jirgin ruwa, inda bayan wasu kwanaki ya sauka a gabar Kogin Gambia a wani gari da ake kira Barra. Ya tafi tiryan-tiryan har wani gari mai suna Pisania, daga nan ya risƙi wani gari da ake kira Jonkakonda, daga bisani kuma ya ƙaraso masarautar Wuli a farkon shekarar 1791.

A wannan wuri, ance Sarkin Masarautar Wuli ya karɓi Houghton da girmamawa, har ma ya bashi mazauni a garin sa mai suna Medina. Sai dai ba a jima ba abokan hamayyar Sarkin suka kawowa garin hari, inda kuma sukaci nasarar kone garin, har ma kayyayakin Houghton na yaƙi da wasu abubuwa masu amfani suka ƙone ƙurmus. Wannan abu yayi masa ciwo matuƙa.
Duk da haka, Houghton baiyi ƙasa a guiwa ba, inda yaci gaba da tafiyar sa yana neman garin Timbuktu.

Ance a wajajen watan Mayu na shekarar 1791, Houghton ya bar gaɓar tekun Barra, sannan ya kutsa kai don tunkarar Timbuktu. A lokacin ne kuma ya tura da saƙo zuwa Ingila mai ɗauke da labarin yadda tafiyar sa take kasancewa. Saƙon ya isa birnin Landan cikin nasara.

Daga nan, Houton ya samu damar gewayawa ta kogin Senegal, shine ma sarkin wani gari yaci mutuncinsa, da ƙyar ya samu kuɓuta ya isa masarautar Ferbanna dake yankin Bambu na ƙasar ta senegal acikin damuna ta wannan shekara.

Daga nan ne kuma ya hadu da wani Matafiyi mai suna Madegammo, wanda yayi alƙawarin zai yiwa Houghton jagoranci izuwa birnin Timbuktu a kyauta. Sun fara wannan tafiya ne a watan yulin 1791, shine har Houghton ya ƙara turawa da saƙo gida yana mai labarta yarjejeniyar da sukayi da matafiyin, ya aika saƙon ne ta hanyar matafiya, kuma sannu-a hankali ya isa birnin landan.

Wannan saƙon shine ya zamo na ƙarshe, domin daga nan ba a ƙara jin ɗuriyar sa ba.

A shekara ta 1793, labari mai tushe ya riski Landan cewar Houghton ya samu kansa cikin mawuyacin hali yayin tafiyarsa zuwa Tambuktu, wannan ne yasa tafiyar ta sire masa, abokan tafiyar sa kuma suka ribace shi, inda suka sauya akalar tafiyar izuwa wani gari mai suna Tisheet (wanda yake a ƙasar Mouritania a yanzu). Amma kwana biyu da yin haka, sai Houghton ya fuskanci cewa abokan tafiyar sa na yunƙurin hallaka shi, wannan yasa ya tsere musu, ya shiga cikin sahara ba ruwa ba abinci a tare dashi, a daddafe ya isa wani gari mai suna Tarra, inda kuma cikin rashin sa’a, mutanen garin suka hanashi ruwa da abinci, wannan yasa yunwa ta halaka shi.

Ance ko gawar Houghton mutanen garin ƙin binne ta sukayi, a ƙarshe tsuntsaye ne suka yagalgalata a banza.
Wannan labari yayi matuƙar ɓatawa Ingila Rai, sannan ya dakushe guiwar masu son jin labarin africa ta yamma da yawa.

Amma ba’a fi shekaru biyu ba, sai ga takarda daga hannun wani baturen ƙasar scotland mai suna MUNGO PARK, yana neman sahalewar ƙarasa aikin da Houghton ya fara..
Tafiyar mungo park (wadda tarihin ta yazo a littafin Mungopark Mabuɗin Kwara) tana ƙunshe da darasi mai tarin yawa. A cikin ta ne mukaji yadda iyaye da kakanni suka rayu a wancan zamani, da kuma yadda Mungopark ya rinƙa bibiyar matsalolin da marigayi Houton ya fuskanta, har ma da laifuffukan da ya yiwa sarakunan africa ta yamma, dalilin dayasa suka tsaneshi kuma kenan har abin ya kai shi ga halaka!

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